Edgewall Software

Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of 1.2/TracInstall


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Oct 15, 2019, 6:32:42 AM (8 weeks ago)
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trac
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  • 1.2/TracInstall

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.2
     2[[TracGuideToc]]
     3[[TranslatedPages]]
     4
     5Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [https://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [https://www.mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [https://genshi.edgewall.org/ Genshi] templating system.
     6
     7Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
     8
     9If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, then please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
     10
     11What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
     12
     13[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
     14
     15== Dependencies
     16=== Mandatory Dependencies
     17To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
     18
     19 * [https://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 2.6 and < 3.0
     20   (note that we dropped the support for Python 2.5 in this release)
     21 * [https://pypi.org/project/setuptools setuptools], version >= 0.6
     22 * [https://pypi.org/project/Genshi Genshi], version >= 0.6
     23
     24You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
     25
     26==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
     27
     28As you must be using Python 2.6 or 2.7, you already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
     29
     30Optionally, you may install a newer version of [https://pypi.org/project/pysqlite pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
     31
     32==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
     33
     34You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
     35 * [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 8.0 or later
     36 * [https://pypi.org/project/psycopg2 psycopg2], version 2.0 or later
     37
     38See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
     39
     40==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
     41
     42Trac works well with MySQL, provided you follow the guidelines:
     43
     44 * [https://www.mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
     45 * [https://sf.net/projects/mysql-python MySQLdb], version 1.2.2 or later
     46
     47Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
     48
     49=== Optional Dependencies
     50
     51==== Subversion
     52
     53[https://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.6.x or later and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings.
     54
     55There are [https://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. (Good luck finding precompiled SWIG bindings for any Windows package at that listing. [trac:TracSubversion] points you to [https://alagazam.net Alagazam], which works for me under Python 2.6.)
     56
     57For troubleshooting information, see the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
     58
     59{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     60**Note:**
     61* Trac '''doesn't''' use [http://pysvn.tigris.org/ PySVN], nor does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
     62* If using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are currently [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
     63}}}
     64
     65==== Git
     66
     67[https://git-scm.com/ Git] 1.5.6 or later is supported. More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
     68
     69==== Other Version Control Systems
     70
     71Support for other version control systems is provided via third-party plugins. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
     72
     73==== Web Server
     74A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
     75
     76Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
     77 * [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
     78  * [https://github.com/GrahamDumpleton/mod_wsgi mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and [https://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac ModWSGI IntegrationWithTrac].
     79  * [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
     80 * a [https://fastcgi-archives.github.io/ FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
     81 * an [https://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
     82   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
     83 * Microsoft IIS with FastCGI and a FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:CookBook/Installation/TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi IIS with FastCGI])
     84 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
     85   is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
     86   
     87
     88==== Other Python Packages
     89
     90 * [http://babel.edgewall.org Babel], version 0.9.6 or >= 1.3,
     91   needed for localization support
     92 * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net/ docutils], version >= 0.3.9
     93   for WikiRestructuredText.
     94 * [http://pygments.org Pygments] for
     95   [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
     96 * [http://pytz.sf.net pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
     97   otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
     98   an internal time zone implementation.
     99
     100{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     101**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
     102}}}
     103
     104Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing''.
     105
     106== Installing Trac
     107
     108The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
     109
     110It is assumed throughout this guide that you have elevated permissions as the `root` user or by prefixing commands with `sudo`. The umask `0002` should be used for a typical installation on a Unix-based platform.
     111
     112=== Using `easy_install`
     113Trac can be installed from PyPI or the Subversion repository using [https://pypi.org/project/setuptools setuptools].
     114
     115A few examples:
     116
     117 - Install the latest stable version of Trac:
     118 {{{#!sh
     119$ easy_install Trac
     120}}}
     121 - Install latest development version:
     122 {{{#!sh
     123$ easy_install https://download.edgewall.org/trac/Trac-latest-dev.tar.gz
     124}}}
     125   Note that in this case you won't have the possibility to run a localized version of Trac;
     126   either use a released version or install from source
     127
     128More information can be found on the [trac:wiki:setuptools setuptools] page.
     129
     130{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     131**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. More information may be found in [#DeployingTrac Deploying Trac].
     132}}}
     133
     134=== Using `pip`
     135'pip' is an easy_install replacement that is very useful to quickly install python packages.
     136To get a Trac installation up and running in less than 5 minutes:
     137
     138Assuming you want to have your entire pip installation in `/opt/user/trac`
     139
     140 {{{#!sh
     141$ pip install trac psycopg2
     142}}}
     143or
     144 {{{#!sh
     145$ pip install trac mysql-python
     146}}}
     147
     148Make sure your OS specific headers are available for pip to automatically build PostgreSQL (`libpq-dev`) or MySQL (`libmysqlclient-dev`) bindings.
     149
     150pip will automatically resolve all dependencies (like Genshi, pygments, etc.), download the latest packages from pypi.python.org and create a self contained installation in `/opt/user/trac`.
     151
     152All commands (`tracd`, `trac-admin`) are available in `/opt/user/trac/bin`. This can also be leveraged for `mod_python` (using `PythonHandler` directive) and `mod_wsgi` (using `WSGIDaemonProcess` directive)
     153
     154Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins (listed [https://pypi.python.org/pypi?:action=browse&show=all&c=516 here]) through pip.
     155
     156=== From source
     157Using the python-typical setup at the top of the source directory also works. You can obtain the source for a .tar.gz or .zip file corresponding to a release (e.g. `Trac-1.0.tar.gz`) from the [trac:TracDownload] page, or you can get the source directly from the repository. See [trac:TracRepositories#OfficialSubversionrepository TracRepositories] for details.
     158
     159{{{#!sh
     160$ python ./setup.py install
     161}}}
     162
     163''You will need root permissions or equivalent for this step.''
     164
     165This will byte-compile the Python source code and install it as an .egg file or folder in the `site-packages` directory
     166of your Python installation. The .egg will also contain all other resources needed by standard Trac, such as `htdocs` and `templates`.
     167
     168If you install from source and want to make Trac available in other languages, make sure Babel is installed. Only then, perform the `install` (or simply redo the `install` once again afterwards if you realize Babel was not yet installed):
     169{{{#!sh
     170$ python ./setup.py install
     171}}}
     172Alternatively, you can run `bdist_egg` and copy the .egg from `dist/` to the place of your choice, or you can create a Windows installer (`bdist_wininst`).
     173
     174=== Using installer
     175
     176On Windows, Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
     177
     178=== Using package manager
     179
     180Trac may be available in your platform's package repository. Note however, that the version provided by your package manager may not be the latest release.
     181
     182=== Advanced `easy_install` Options
     183
     184To install Trac to a custom location, or find out about other advanced installation options, run:
     185{{{#!sh
     186$ easy_install --help
     187}}}
     188
     189Also see [https://docs.python.org/2/install/index.html Installing Python Modules] for detailed information.
     190
     191Specifically, you might be interested in:
     192{{{#!sh
     193$ easy_install --prefix=/path/to/installdir
     194}}}
     195or, if installing Trac on a Mac OS X system:
     196{{{#!sh
     197$ easy_install --prefix=/usr/local --install-dir=/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages
     198}}}
     199
     200{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     201**Mac OS X Note:** On Mac OS X 10.6,  running `easy_install trac` will install into `/usr/local` and `/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages` by default.
     202
     203The `tracd` and `trac-admin` commands will be placed in `/usr/local/bin` and will install the Trac libraries and dependencies into `/Library/Python/2.6/site-packages`, which is Apple's preferred location for third-party Python application installations.
     204}}}
     205
     206== Creating a Project Environment
     207
     208A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
     209
     210A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
     211{{{#!sh
     212$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     213}}}
     214
     215You will be prompted for the information needed to create the environment: the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for any of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
     216
     217Using the default database connection string will always work as long as you have SQLite installed. For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
     218
     219Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later using TracAdmin or directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
     220
     221{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     222**Filesystem Warning:** When selecting the location of your environment, make sure that the filesystem on which the environment directory resides supports sub-second timestamps (i.e. **not** `ext2` or `ext3` on Linux, or HFS+ on OSX), as the modification time of the `conf/trac.ini` file will be monitored to decide whether an environment restart is needed or not. A too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may result in inconsistencies in Trac < 1.0.2. The best advice is to opt for a platform with sub-second timestamp resolution, regardless of the Trac version.
     223}}}
     224
     225Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
     226{{{#!sh
     227$ chown -R apache:apache /path/to/myproject
     228}}}
     229
     230The actual username and groupname of the apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
     231
     232{{{#!div class=important
     233'''Warning:''' Please only use ASCII-characters for account name and project path, unicode characters are not supported there.
     234}}}
     235
     236== Deploying Trac
     237
     238{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     239**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation.
     240
     241If running `tracd`, the environment variable can be set system-wide or for just the user that runs the `tracd` process. There are several ways to accomplish this in addition to what is discussed here, and depending on the distribution of your OS.
     242
     243To be effective system-wide a shell script with the `export` statement may be added to `/etc/profile.d`. To be effective for a user session the `export` statement may be added to `~/.profile`.
     244{{{#!sh
     245export PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1
     246}}}
     247
     248Alternatively, the variable can be set in the shell before executing `tracd`:
     249{{{#!sh
     250$ PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1 tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     251}}}
     252
     253If running the Apache web server, !Ubuntu/Debian users should add the `export` statement to `/etc/apache2/envvars`. !RedHat/CentOS/Fedora should can add the `export` statement to `/etc/sysconfig/httpd`.
     254}}}
     255
     256=== Running the Standalone Server
     257
     258After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
     259{{{#!sh
     260$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     261}}}
     262
     263Then, fire up a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
     264{{{#!sh
     265$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     266}}}
     267
     268=== Running Trac on a Web Server
     269
     270Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
     271 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
     272 - [wiki:TracModWSGI Apache with mod_wsgi]
     273 - [TracModPython Apache with mod_python]
     274 - [TracCgi CGI] //(should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
     275
     276Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [https://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
     277
     278==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
     279
     280Application scripts for CGI, FastCGI and mod-wsgi can be generated using the [TracAdmin trac-admin] `deploy` command:
     281[[TracAdminHelp(deploy)]]
     282
     283Grant the web server execution right on scripts in the `cgi-bin` directory.
     284
     285For example, the following yields a typical directory structure:
     286{{{#!sh
     287$ mkdir -p /var/trac
     288$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> initenv
     289$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     290$ ls /var/www
     291cgi-bin htdocs
     292$ chmod ugo+x /var/www/cgi-bin/*
     293}}}
     294
     295==== Mapping Static Resources
     296
     297Without additional configuration, Trac will handle requests for static resources such as stylesheets and images. For anything other than a TracStandalone deployment, this is not optimal as the web server can be set up to directly serve the static resources. For CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' as it causes abysmal performance.
     298
     299Web servers such as [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create //Aliases// to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect their location on the file system. We can map requests for static resources directly to directories on the file system, to avoid Trac processing the requests.
     300
     301There are two primary URL paths for static resources: `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible at the `/chrome/<plugin>` path.
     302
     303A single `/chrome` alias can used if the static resources are extracted for all plugins. This means that the `deploy` command (discussed in the previous section) must be executed after installing or updating a plugin that provides static resources, or after modifying resources in the `$env/htdocs` directory. This is probably appropriate for most installations but may not be what you want if, for example, you wish to upload plugins through the //Plugins// administration page.
     304
     305The `deploy` command creates an `htdocs` directory with:
     306 - `common/` - the static resources of Trac
     307 - `site/` - a copy of the environment's `htdocs/` directory
     308 - `shared` - the static resources shared by multiple Trac environments, with a location defined by the `[inherit]` `htdocs_dir` option
     309 - `<plugin>/` - one directory for each resource directory provided by the plugins enabled for this environment
     310
     311The example that follows will create a single `/chrome` alias. If that isn't the correct approach for your installation you simply need to create more specific aliases:
     312{{{#!apache
     313Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
     314Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
     315Alias /trac/chrome/shared /path/to/trac/htdocs/shared
     316Alias /trac/chrome/<plugin> /path/to/trac/htdocs/<plugin>
     317}}}
     318
     319===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
     320
     321Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
     322{{{#!sh
     323$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     324}}}
     325
     326Add the following snippet to Apache configuration, changing paths to match your deployment. The snippet must be placed ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` directive, because those directives map all requests to the Trac application:
     327{{{#!apache
     328Alias /trac/chrome /path/to/trac/htdocs
     329
     330<Directory "/path/to/www/trac/htdocs">
     331  # For Apache 2.2
     332  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     333    Order allow,deny
     334    Allow from all
     335  </IfModule>
     336  # For Apache 2.4
     337  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     338    Require all granted
     339  </IfModule>
     340</Directory>
     341}}}
     342
     343If using mod_python, add this too, otherwise the alias will be ignored:
     344{{{#!apache
     345<Location "/trac/chrome/common">
     346  SetHandler None
     347</Location>
     348}}}
     349
     350Alternatively, if you wish to serve static resources directly from your project's `htdocs` directory rather than the location to which the files are extracted with the `deploy` command, you can configure Apache to serve those resources. Again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation:
     351{{{#!apache
     352Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
     353
     354<Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
     355  # For Apache 2.2
     356  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     357    Order allow,deny
     358    Allow from all
     359  </IfModule>
     360  # For Apache 2.4
     361  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     362    Require all granted
     363  </IfModule>
     364</Directory>
     365}}}
     366
     367Another alternative to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common` is having Trac generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [TracIni#trac-section htdocs_location] configuration setting:
     368{{{#!ini
     369[trac]
     370htdocs_location = http://static.example.org/trac-common/
     371}}}
     372
     373Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources, preferentially cookie-less.
     374
     375Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
     376{{{#!sh
     377$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/static.example.org/trac-common
     378}}}
     379
     380==== Setting up the Plugin Cache #egg-cache
     381
     382Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
     383
     384If you setup hook scripts that call Trac, such as the Subversion post-commit hook script provided in the `/contrib` directory, make sure you define the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable within these scripts as well.
     385
     386== Configuring Authentication
     387
     388Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
     389
     390The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
     391
     392Please refer to one of the following sections:
     393 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
     394 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi`, `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
     395 * TracFastCgi if you're using another web server with FCGI support (Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx)
     396
     397[trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction] also contains some useful information for beginners.
     398
     399== Granting admin rights to the admin user
     400Grant admin rights to user admin:
     401{{{#!sh
     402$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
     403}}}
     404
     405This user will have an //Admin// navigation item that directs to pages for administering your Trac project.
     406
     407== Configuring Trac
     408
     409TracRepositoryAdmin provides information on configuring version control repositories for your project.
     410
     411== Using Trac
     412
     413Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
     414
     415Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
     416
     417'' Enjoy! ''
     418
     419[trac:TracTeam The Trac Team]
     420
     421----
     422See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade, TracPermissions