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  • TracInstall

    v1 v451  
     1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.4
     2[[TracGuideToc]]
     3[[TranslatedPages]]
     4
     5Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [https://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [https://mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [http://jinja.pocoo.org Jinja2] templating system, though Genshi templates are supported until Trac 1.5.1.
     6
     7Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
     8
     9If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
     10
     11What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
     12
     13[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
     14
     15== Dependencies
     16=== Mandatory Dependencies
     17To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
     18
     19 * [https://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 2.7 and < 3.0
     20   (note that we dropped the support for Python 2.6 in this release)
     21 * [https://pypi.org/project/setuptools setuptools], version >= 0.6
     22 * [https://pypi.org/project/Jinja2 Jinja2], version >= 2.9.3
     23
     24{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     25**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. More information may be found in [#DeployingTrac Deploying Trac].
     26}}}
     27
     28You also need a database system and the corresponding Python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
     29
     30==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
     31
     32You already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
     33
     34Optionally, you may install a newer version of [https://pypi.org/project/pysqlite pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
     35
     36==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
     37
     38You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
     39 * [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 9.1 or later
     40 * [https://pypi.org/project/psycopg2 psycopg2], version 2.0 or later
     41
     42See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
     43
     44==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
     45
     46Trac works well with MySQL, provided you use the following:
     47
     48 * [https://mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
     49 * [https://pypi.org/project/PyMySQL PyMySQL]
     50
     51Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
     52
     53=== Optional Dependencies
     54
     55==== Subversion
     56
     57[https://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.6.x or later and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings.
     58
     59There are [https://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. See [trac:TracSubversion#GettingSubversion getting Subversion] for more information.
     60
     61{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     62**Note:**
     63* Trac '''doesn't''' use [https://pypi.org/project/PySVN PySVN], nor does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
     64* If using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
     65}}}
     66
     67For troubleshooting information, see the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
     68
     69==== Git
     70
     71[https://git-scm.com/ Git] 1.5.6 or later is supported. More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
     72
     73==== Other Version Control Systems
     74
     75Support for other version control systems is provided via third-party plugins. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
     76
     77==== Web Server
     78A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
     79
     80Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
     81 * [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
     82   - [https://github.com/GrahamDumpleton/mod_wsgi mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and
     83     [https://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac ModWSGI IntegrationWithTrac].
     84   - [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
     85 * a [https://fastcgi-archives.github.io FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
     86 * an [https://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
     87   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
     88 * Microsoft IIS with FastCGI and a FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:CookBook/Installation/TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi IIS with FastCGI])
     89 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
     90   is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
     91
     92
     93==== Other Python Packages
     94
     95 * [http://babel.pocoo.org Babel], version 0.9.6 or >= 1.3,
     96   needed for localization support
     97 * [http://pytz.sourceforge.net pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
     98   otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
     99   an internal time zone implementation. Installing Babel
     100   will install pytz.
     101 * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net docutils], version >= 0.3.9
     102   for WikiRestructuredText.
     103 * [http://pygments.org Pygments] for
     104   [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
     105 * [https://pypi.org/project/textile Textile] for rendering the [https://github.com/textile/python-textile Textile markup language].
     106 * [https://pypi.org/project/passlib passlib] on Windows to decode [TracStandalone#BasicAuthorization:Usingahtpasswdpasswordfile htpasswd formats] other than `SHA-1`.
     107 * [https://pypi.org/project/pyreadline pyreadline] on Windows for trac-admin [TracAdmin#InteractiveMode command completion].
     108
     109{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     110**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
     111}}}
     112
     113Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing''.
     114
     115== Installing Trac
     116
     117The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
     118
     119It is assumed throughout this guide that you have elevated permissions as the `root` user or by prefixing commands with `sudo`. The umask `0002` should be used for a typical installation on a Unix-based platform.
     120
     121=== Using `pip`
     122`pip` is the modern Python package manager and is included in Python 2.7.9 and later. Use [https://bootstrap.pypa.io/pip/2.7/get-pip.py get-pip.py] to install `pip` for earlier versions.
     123{{{#!sh
     124$ pip install Trac
     125}}}
     126
     127`pip` will automatically resolve the //required// dependencies (Jinja2 and setuptools) and download the latest packages from pypi.org.
     128
     129You can also install directly from a source package. You can obtain the source in a tar or zip from the [trac:TracDownload] page. After extracting the archive, change to the directory containing `setup.py` and run:
     130
     131{{{#!sh
     132$ pip install .
     133}}}
     134
     135`pip` supports numerous other install mechanisms. It can be passed the URL of an archive or other download location. Here are some examples:
     136
     137* Install the latest development version from a tar archive:
     138{{{#!sh
     139$ pip install https://download.edgewall.org/trac/Trac-latest-dev.tar.gz
     140}}}
     141* Install the unreleased 1.2-stable from subversion:
     142{{{#!sh
     143$ pip install svn+https://svn.edgewall.org/repos/trac/branches/1.2-stable
     144}}}
     145* Install the latest development preview (//not recommended for production installs//):
     146{{{#!sh
     147$ pip install --find-links=https://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/TracDownload Trac
     148}}}
     149
     150The optional dependencies can be installed from PyPI using `pip`:
     151{{{#!sh
     152$ pip install babel docutils pygments textile
     153}}}
     154
     155The optional dependencies can alternatively be
     156specified using the `extras` keys in the setup file:
     157{{{#!sh
     158$ pip install Trac[babel,rest,pygments,textile]
     159}}}
     160
     161`rest` is the extra that installs the `docutils`
     162dependency.
     163
     164Include `mysql` or `psycopg2-binary` in the
     165list if using the MySQL or PostgreSQL database.
     166
     167Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins from PyPI (listed [https://pypi.org/search/?c=Framework+%3A%3A+Trac here]) using pip. See TracPlugins for more information.
     168
     169=== Using installer
     170
     171On Windows, Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
     172
     173=== Using package manager
     174
     175Trac may be available in your platform's package repository. However, your package manager may not provide the latest release of Trac.
     176
     177== Creating a Project Environment
     178
     179A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
     180
     181A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
     182{{{#!sh
     183$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     184}}}
     185
     186[TracAdmin trac-admin] will prompt you for the information it needs to create the environment: the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for any of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
     187
     188Using the default database connection string will always work as long as you have SQLite installed. For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
     189
     190Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later using TracAdmin or directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
     191
     192Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
     193{{{#!sh
     194$ chown -R apache:apache /path/to/myproject
     195}}}
     196
     197The actual username and groupname of the apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
     198
     199{{{#!div class=important
     200'''Warning:''' Please only use ASCII-characters for account name and project path, unicode characters are not supported there.
     201}}}
     202
     203== Deploying Trac
     204
     205{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     206**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation.
     207
     208If running `tracd`, the environment variable can be set system-wide or for just the user that runs the `tracd` process. There are several ways to accomplish this in addition to what is discussed here, and depending on the distribution of your OS.
     209
     210To be effective system-wide a shell script with the `export` statement may be added to `/etc/profile.d`. To be effective for a user session the `export` statement may be added to `~/.profile`.
     211{{{#!sh
     212export PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1
     213}}}
     214
     215Alternatively, the variable can be set in the shell before executing `tracd`:
     216{{{#!sh
     217$ PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1 tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     218}}}
     219
     220If running the Apache web server, !Ubuntu/Debian users should add the `export` statement to `/etc/apache2/envvars`. !RedHat/CentOS/Fedora should can add the `export` statement to `/etc/sysconfig/httpd`.
     221}}}
     222
     223=== Running the Standalone Server
     224
     225After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
     226{{{#!sh
     227$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     228}}}
     229
     230Then, open a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
     231{{{#!sh
     232$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     233}}}
     234
     235=== Running Trac on a Web Server
     236
     237Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
     238 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
     239 - [wiki:TracModWSGI Apache with mod_wsgi]
     240 - [TracModPython Apache with mod_python]
     241 - [TracCgi CGI] //(should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
     242
     243Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [https://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
     244
     245==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
     246
     247Application scripts for CGI, FastCGI and mod-wsgi can be generated using the [TracAdmin trac-admin] `deploy` command:
     248[[TracAdminHelp(deploy)]]
     249
     250Grant the web server execution right on scripts in the `cgi-bin` directory.
     251
     252For example, the following yields a typical directory structure:
     253{{{#!sh
     254$ mkdir -p /var/trac
     255$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> initenv
     256$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     257$ ls /var/www
     258cgi-bin htdocs
     259$ chmod ugo+x /var/www/cgi-bin/*
     260}}}
     261
     262==== Mapping Static Resources
     263
     264Without additional configuration, Trac will handle requests for static resources such as stylesheets and images. For anything other than a TracStandalone deployment, this is not optimal as the web server can be set up to directly serve the static resources. For CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' as it causes abysmal performance.
     265
     266Web servers such as [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create //Aliases// to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect their location on the file system. We can map requests for static resources directly to directories on the file system, to avoid Trac processing the requests.
     267
     268There are two primary URL paths for static resources: `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible at the `/chrome/<plugin>` path.
     269
     270A single `/chrome` alias can used if the static resources are extracted for all plugins. This means that the `deploy` command (discussed in the previous section) must be executed after installing or updating a plugin that provides static resources, or after modifying resources in the `$env/htdocs` directory. This is probably appropriate for most installations but may not be what you want if, for example, you wish to upload plugins through the //Plugins// administration page.
     271
     272The `deploy` command creates an `htdocs` directory with:
     273 - `common/` - the static resources of Trac
     274 - `site/` - a copy of the environment's `htdocs/` directory
     275 - `shared` - the static resources shared by multiple Trac environments, with a location defined by the `[inherit]` `htdocs_dir` option
     276 - `<plugin>/` - one directory for each resource directory provided by the plugins enabled for this environment
     277
     278The example that follows will create a single `/chrome` alias. If that isn't the correct approach for your installation you simply need to create more specific aliases:
     279{{{#!apache
     280Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
     281Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
     282Alias /trac/chrome/shared /path/to/trac/htdocs/shared
     283Alias /trac/chrome/<plugin> /path/to/trac/htdocs/<plugin>
     284}}}
     285
     286===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
     287
     288Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
     289{{{#!sh
     290$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www/trac
     291}}}
     292
     293Add the following snippet to Apache configuration, changing paths to match your deployment. The snippet must be placed ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` directive, because those directives map all requests to the Trac application:
     294{{{#!apache
     295Alias /trac/chrome /var/www/trac/htdocs
     296
     297<Directory "/var/www/trac/htdocs">
     298  # For Apache 2.2
     299  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     300    Order allow,deny
     301    Allow from all
     302  </IfModule>
     303  # For Apache 2.4
     304  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     305    Require all granted
     306  </IfModule>
     307</Directory>
     308}}}
     309
     310If using mod_python, add this too, otherwise the alias will be ignored:
     311{{{#!apache
     312<Location "/trac/chrome/common">
     313  SetHandler None
     314</Location>
     315}}}
     316
     317Alternatively, if you wish to serve static resources directly from your project's `htdocs` directory rather than the location to which the files are extracted with the `deploy` command, you can configure Apache to serve those resources. Again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation:
     318{{{#!apache
     319Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
     320
     321<Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
     322  # For Apache 2.2
     323  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     324    Order allow,deny
     325    Allow from all
     326  </IfModule>
     327  # For Apache 2.4
     328  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     329    Require all granted
     330  </IfModule>
     331</Directory>
     332}}}
     333
     334Another alternative to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common` is having Trac generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [TracIni#trac-htdocs_location-option trac.htdocs_location] configuration setting:
     335{{{#!ini
     336[trac]
     337htdocs_location = http://static.example.org/trac-common/
     338}}}
     339
     340Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources, preferentially cookie-less.
     341
     342Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
     343{{{#!sh
     344$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/static.example.org/trac-common
     345}}}
     346
     347==== Setting up the Plugin Cache
     348
     349Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
     350
     351== Configuring Authentication
     352
     353Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
     354
     355The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
     356
     357Please refer to one of the following sections:
     358 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
     359 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi`, `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
     360 * TracFastCgi if you're using another web server with FCGI support (Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx)
     361
     362[trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction] also contains some useful information for beginners.
     363
     364== Granting admin rights to the admin user
     365Grant admin rights to user admin:
     366{{{#!sh
     367$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
     368}}}
     369
     370This user will have an //Admin// navigation item that directs to pages for administering your Trac project.
     371
     372== Configuring Trac
     373
     374Configuration options are documented on the TracIni page.
     375
     376TracRepositoryAdmin provides information on configuring version control repositories for your project.
     377
     378In addition to the optional version control backends, Trac provides several optional features that are disabled by default:
     379* [TracFineGrainedPermissions#AuthzPolicy Fine-grained permission policy]
     380* [TracPermissions#CreatingNewPrivileges Custom permissions]
     381* [TracTickets#deleter Ticket deletion]
     382* [TracTickets#cloner Ticket cloning]
     383* [TracRepositoryAdmin#CommitTicketUpdater Ticket changeset references]
     384
     385== Using Trac
     386
     387Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
     388
     389Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
     390
     391'' Enjoy! ''
     392
     393[trac:TracTeam The Trac Team]
     394
     395----
     396See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade