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Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of 1.1/TracEnvironment


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Timestamp:
Nov 24, 2014, 12:23:34 PM (5 years ago)
Author:
Ryan J Ollos
Comment:

Copied from TracEnvironment@58.

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  • 1.1/TracEnvironment

    v1 v1  
     1= The Trac Environment
     2[[TracGuideToc]]
     3[[PageOutline]]
     4
     5Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”.
     6
     7== Creating an Environment
     8
     9A new Trac environment is created using  [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]:
     10{{{#!sh
     11$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     12}}}
     13
     14`trac-admin` will ask you for the name of the project and the
     15database connection string (explained below).
     16
     17=== Some Useful Tips
     18
     19 - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2 (this is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone).
     20
     21 - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to
     22 the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set
     23 the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository,
     24 although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     25 
     26 - `initenv`, when using an svn repository, does not imply that trac-admin will perform `svnadmin create` for the specified repository path. You need to perform the `svnadmin create` prior to `trac-admin initenv` if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new trac environment, otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment.
     27
     28 - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported
     29 
     30 - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]).
     31
     32 - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it.
     33
     34== Database Connection Strings
     35
     36Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] database backends.  The default is to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database
     37file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be
     38[wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment.
     39
     40Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the `:`, `/` or `@` characters, they need to be URL encoded.
     41
     42=== SQLite Connection String
     43The connection string for an SQLite database is:
     44{{{
     45sqlite:db/trac.db
     46}}}
     47where `db/trac.db` is the path to the database file within the Trac environment.
     48
     49=== PostgreSQL Connection String
     50If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a
     51different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL
     52database on the same machine called `trac`, that allows access to the
     53user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, use:
     54{{{
     55postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac
     56}}}
     57
     58If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use:
     59{{{
     60postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac
     61}}}
     62
     63On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport,
     64either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable:
     65{{{
     66postgres://user:password@/database
     67}}}
     68or a specific one:
     69{{{
     70postgres://user:password@/database?host=/path/to/socket/dir
     71}}}
     72
     73Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running
     74`trac-admin initenv`.
     75
     76See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL].
     77Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named `tracuser`, and a database named `trac`.
     78{{{#!sh
     79$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser
     80$ createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac
     81}}}
     82When running `createuser` you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the `-P` and `-E` options from the `createuser` command.  Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac.  SQL_ASCII also seems to work.
     83
     84Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the `createuser` and `createdb` scripts as the `postgres` user.  For example:
     85{{{#!sh
     86$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser'
     87$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac'
     88}}}
     89
     90Trac uses the `public` schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string:
     91{{{
     92postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname
     93}}}
     94
     95=== MySQL Connection String
     96
     97The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to the examples presented for PostgreSQL, with the `postgres` scheme being replaced by `mysql`. For example, to connect to a MySQL
     98database on the same machine called `trac`, allowing access to the
     99user `johndoe` with the password `letmein`, the mysql connection string is:
     100{{{
     101mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac
     102}}}
     103
     104== Source Code Repository
     105
     106Since version 0.12, a single Trac environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository (like `type`, `url`, `description`).
     107
     108In Trac 0.12 `trac-admin` no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed.
     109You can also explicitly disable the `trac.versioncontrol.*` components (which are otherwise still loaded)
     110{{{#!ini
     111[components]
     112trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled
     113}}}
     114
     115For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository,
     116but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information
     117related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for
     118Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation.
     119
     120Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository:
     121{{{#!ini
     122[trac]
     123repository_type = svn
     124repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository
     125}}}
     126
     127The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be:
     128{{{#!ini
     129[trac]
     130repository_type = svn
     131repository_dir = /path/to/your/repository/scope/within/repos
     132}}}
     133
     134== Directory Structure
     135
     136An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories:
     137
     138 * `README` - Brief description of the environment.
     139 * `VERSION` - Contains the environment version identifier.
     140 * `attachments` - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here.
     141 * `conf`
     142  * `trac.ini` - Main configuration file. See TracIni.
     143 * `db`
     144  * `trac.db` - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite).
     145 * `htdocs` - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using `/htdocs/site/...` URLs.
     146 * `log` - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given.
     147 * `plugins` - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins]
     148 * `templates` - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates.
     149  * `site.html` - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance
     150
     151=== Caveat: don't confuse a ''Trac environment directory'' with the ''source code repository directory'' #Caveat
     152
     153This is a common beginners' mistake.
     154It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory
     155structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place.
     156
     157----
     158See also: TracAdmin, TracBackup, TracIni, TracGuide