Changes between Initial Version and Version 1 of TracInstall


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Timestamp:
Apr 21, 2020, 11:11:05 PM (14 months ago)
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trac
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  • TracInstall

    v1 v1  
     1= Trac Installation Guide for 1.3
     2[[TracGuideToc]]
     3
     4Trac is written in the Python programming language and needs a database, [https://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], or [https://mysql.com/ MySQL]. For HTML rendering, Trac uses the [http://jinja.pocoo.org Jinja2] templating system, though Genshi templates will still be supported until at least Trac 1.5.1.
     5
     6Trac can also be localized, and there is probably a translation available in your language. If you want to use the Trac interface in other languages, then make sure you have installed the optional package [#OtherPythonPackages Babel]. Pay attention to the extra steps for localization support in the [#InstallingTrac Installing Trac] section below. Lacking Babel, you will only get the default English version.
     7
     8If you're interested in contributing new translations for other languages or enhancing the existing translations, please have a look at [trac:wiki:TracL10N TracL10N].
     9
     10What follows are generic instructions for installing and setting up Trac. While you may find instructions for installing Trac on specific systems at [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], please '''first read through these general instructions''' to get a good understanding of the tasks involved.
     11
     12[[PageOutline(2-3,Installation Steps,inline)]]
     13
     14== Dependencies
     15=== Mandatory Dependencies
     16To install Trac, the following software packages must be installed:
     17
     18 * [https://www.python.org/ Python], version >= 2.7 and < 3.0
     19   (note that we dropped the support for Python 2.6 in this release)
     20 * [https://pypi.org/project/setuptools setuptools], version >= 0.6
     21 * [https://pypi.org/project/Jinja2 Jinja2], version >= 2.9.3
     22
     23{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     24**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation. More information may be found in [#DeployingTrac Deploying Trac].
     25}}}
     26
     27You also need a database system and the corresponding python bindings. The database can be either SQLite, PostgreSQL or MySQL.
     28
     29==== For the SQLite database #ForSQLite
     30
     31You already have the SQLite database bindings bundled with the standard distribution of Python (the `sqlite3` module).
     32
     33Optionally, you may install a newer version of [https://pypi.org/project/pysqlite pysqlite] than the one provided by the Python distribution. See [trac:PySqlite#ThePysqlite2bindings PySqlite] for details.
     34
     35==== For the PostgreSQL database #ForPostgreSQL
     36
     37You need to install the database and its Python bindings:
     38 * [https://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL], version 9.1 or later
     39 * [https://pypi.org/project/psycopg2 psycopg2], version 2.0 or later
     40
     41See [trac:DatabaseBackend#Postgresql DatabaseBackend] for details.
     42
     43==== For the MySQL database #ForMySQL
     44
     45Trac works well with MySQL, provided you use the following:
     46
     47 * [https://mysql.com/ MySQL], version 5.0 or later
     48 * [https://pypi.org/project/PyMySQL PyMySQL]
     49
     50Given the caveats and known issues surrounding MySQL, read carefully the [trac:MySqlDb] page before creating the database.
     51
     52=== Optional Dependencies
     53
     54==== Subversion
     55
     56[https://subversion.apache.org/ Subversion], 1.6.x or later and the '''''corresponding''''' Python bindings.
     57
     58There are [https://subversion.apache.org/packages.html pre-compiled SWIG bindings] available for various platforms. See [trac:TracSubversion#GettingSubversion getting Subversion] for more information.
     59
     60{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     61**Note:**
     62* Trac '''doesn't''' use [http://pysvn.tigris.org/ PySVN], nor does it work yet with the newer `ctype`-style bindings.
     63* If using Subversion, Trac must be installed on the '''same machine'''. Remote repositories are [trac:ticket:493 not supported].
     64}}}
     65
     66For troubleshooting information, see the [trac:TracSubversion#Troubleshooting TracSubversion] page.
     67
     68==== Git
     69
     70[https://git-scm.com/ Git] 1.5.6 or later is supported. More information is available on the [trac:TracGit] page.
     71
     72==== Other Version Control Systems
     73
     74Support for other version control systems is provided via third-party plugins. See [trac:PluginList#VersionControlSystems] and [trac:VersionControlSystem].
     75
     76==== Web Server
     77A web server is optional because Trac is shipped with a server included, see the [#RunningtheStandaloneServer Running the Standalone Server] section below.
     78
     79Alternatively you can configure Trac to run in any of the following environments:
     80 * [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] with
     81   - [https://github.com/GrahamDumpleton/mod_wsgi mod_wsgi], see [wiki:TracModWSGI] and
     82     [https://code.google.com/p/modwsgi/wiki/IntegrationWithTrac ModWSGI IntegrationWithTrac].
     83   - [http://modpython.org/ mod_python 3.5.0], see TracModPython
     84 * a [https://fastcgi-archives.github.io FastCGI]-capable web server (see TracFastCgi)
     85 * an [https://tomcat.apache.org/connectors-doc/ajp/ajpv13a.html AJP]-capable web
     86   server (see [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp TracOnWindowsIisAjp])
     87 * Microsoft IIS with FastCGI and a FastCGI-to-WSGI gateway (see [trac:CookBook/Installation/TracOnWindowsIisWfastcgi IIS with FastCGI])
     88 * a CGI-capable web server (see TracCgi), '''but usage of Trac as a cgi script
     89   is highly discouraged''', better use one of the previous options.
     90   
     91
     92==== Other Python Packages
     93
     94 * [http://babel.pocoo.org Babel], version 0.9.6 or >= 1.3,
     95   needed for localization support
     96 * [http://docutils.sourceforge.net docutils], version >= 0.3.9
     97   for WikiRestructuredText.
     98 * [http://pygments.org Pygments] for
     99   [TracSyntaxColoring syntax highlighting].
     100 * [https://pypi.org/project/textile Textile] for rendering the [https://github.com/textile/python-textile Textile markup language].
     101 * [http://pytz.sourceforge.net pytz] to get a complete list of time zones,
     102   otherwise Trac will fall back on a shorter list from
     103   an internal time zone implementation.
     104 * [https://pypi.org/project/passlib passlib] on Windows to decode [TracStandalone#BasicAuthorization:Usingahtpasswdpasswordfile htpasswd formats] other than `SHA-1`.
     105 * [https://pypi.org/project/pyreadline pyreadline] on Windows for trac-admin [TracAdmin#InteractiveMode command completion].
     106
     107{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     108**Attention**: The available versions of these dependencies are not necessarily interchangeable, so please pay attention to the version numbers. If you are having trouble getting Trac to work, please double-check all the dependencies before asking for help on the [trac:MailingList] or [trac:IrcChannel].
     109}}}
     110
     111Please refer to the documentation of these packages to find out how they are best installed. In addition, most of the [trac:TracInstallPlatforms platform-specific instructions] also describe the installation of the dependencies. Keep in mind however that the information there ''probably concern older versions of Trac than the one you're installing''.
     112
     113== Installing Trac
     114
     115The [TracAdmin trac-admin] command-line tool, used to create and maintain [TracEnvironment project environments], as well as the [TracStandalone tracd] standalone server are installed along with Trac. There are several methods for installing Trac.
     116
     117It is assumed throughout this guide that you have elevated permissions as the `root` user or by prefixing commands with `sudo`. The umask `0002` should be used for a typical installation on a Unix-based platform.
     118
     119=== Using `pip`
     120`pip` is the modern Python package manager and is included in Python 2.7.9 and later. Use [https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py get-pip.py] to install `pip` for an earlier version of Python.
     121
     122{{{#!sh
     123$ pip install Trac
     124}}}
     125
     126`pip` will automatically resolve the //required// dependencies (Jinja2 and setuptools) and download the latest packages from pypi.org.
     127
     128You can also install directly from a source package. You can obtain the source in a tar or zip from the [trac:TracDownload] page. After extracting the archive, change to the directory containing `setup.py` and run:
     129
     130{{{#!sh
     131$ pip install .
     132}}}
     133
     134`pip` supports numerous other install mechanisms. It can be passed the URL of an archive or other download location. Here are some examples:
     135
     136* Install the latest stable version from a zip archive:
     137{{{#!sh
     138$ pip install https://download.edgewall.org/trac/Trac-latest.zip
     139}}}
     140* Install the latest development version from a tar archive:
     141{{{#!sh
     142$ pip install https://download.edgewall.org/trac/Trac-latest-dev.tar.gz
     143}}}
     144* Install the unreleased 1.2-stable from subversion:
     145{{{#!sh
     146$ pip install svn+https://svn.edgewall.org/repos/trac/branches/1.2-stable
     147}}}
     148* Install the latest development preview (//not recommended for production installs//):
     149{{{#!sh
     150$ pip install --find-links=https://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/TracDownload Trac
     151}}}
     152
     153The optional dependencies can be installed from PyPI using `pip`:
     154{{{#!sh
     155$ pip install babel docutils pygments pytz textile
     156}}}
     157
     158Additionally, you can install several Trac plugins from PyPI (listed [https://pypi.org/search/?c=Framework+%3A%3A+Trac here]) using pip. See TracPlugins for more information.
     159
     160=== Using installer
     161
     162On Windows, Trac can be installed using the exe installers available on the [trac:TracDownload] page. Installers are available for the 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Python. Make sure to use the installer that matches the architecture of your Python installation.
     163
     164=== Using package manager
     165
     166Trac may be available in your platform's package repository. However, your package manager may not provide the latest release of Trac.
     167
     168== Creating a Project Environment
     169
     170A [TracEnvironment Trac environment] is the backend where Trac stores information like wiki pages, tickets, reports, settings, etc. An environment is a directory that contains a human-readable [TracIni configuration file], and other files and directories.
     171
     172A new environment is created using [TracAdmin trac-admin]:
     173{{{#!sh
     174$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv
     175}}}
     176
     177[TracAdmin trac-admin] will prompt you for the information it needs to create the environment: the name of the project and the [TracEnvironment#DatabaseConnectionStrings database connection string]. If you're not sure what to specify for any of these options, just press `<Enter>` to use the default value.
     178
     179Using the default database connection string will always work as long as you have SQLite installed. For the other [trac:DatabaseBackend database backends] you should plan ahead and already have a database ready to use at this point.
     180
     181Also note that the values you specify here can be changed later using TracAdmin or directly editing the [TracIni conf/trac.ini] configuration file.
     182
     183Finally, make sure the user account under which the web front-end runs will have '''write permissions''' to the environment directory and all the files inside. This will be the case if you run `trac-admin ... initenv` as this user. If not, you should set the correct user afterwards. For example on Linux, with the web server running as user `apache` and group `apache`, enter:
     184{{{#!sh
     185$ chown -R apache:apache /path/to/myproject
     186}}}
     187
     188The actual username and groupname of the apache server may not be exactly `apache`, and are specified in the Apache configuration file by the directives `User` and `Group` (if Apache `httpd` is what you use).
     189
     190{{{#!div class=important
     191'''Warning:''' Please only use ASCII-characters for account name and project path, unicode characters are not supported there.
     192}}}
     193
     194== Deploying Trac
     195
     196{{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em"
     197**Setuptools Warning:** If the version of your setuptools is in the range 5.4 through 5.6, the environment variable `PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS` must be set in order to avoid significant performance degradation.
     198
     199If running `tracd`, the environment variable can be set system-wide or for just the user that runs the `tracd` process. There are several ways to accomplish this in addition to what is discussed here, and depending on the distribution of your OS.
     200
     201To be effective system-wide a shell script with the `export` statement may be added to `/etc/profile.d`. To be effective for a user session the `export` statement may be added to `~/.profile`.
     202{{{#!sh
     203export PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1
     204}}}
     205
     206Alternatively, the variable can be set in the shell before executing `tracd`:
     207{{{#!sh
     208$ PKG_RESOURCES_CACHE_ZIP_MANIFESTS=1 tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     209}}}
     210
     211If running the Apache web server, !Ubuntu/Debian users should add the `export` statement to `/etc/apache2/envvars`. !RedHat/CentOS/Fedora should can add the `export` statement to `/etc/sysconfig/httpd`.
     212}}}
     213
     214=== Running the Standalone Server
     215
     216After having created a Trac environment, you can easily try the web interface by running the standalone server [TracStandalone tracd]:
     217{{{#!sh
     218$ tracd --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     219}}}
     220
     221Then, open a browser and visit `http://localhost:8000/`. You should get a simple listing of all environments that `tracd` knows about. Follow the link to the environment you just created, and you should see Trac in action. If you only plan on managing a single project with Trac you can have the standalone server skip the environment list by starting it like this:
     222{{{#!sh
     223$ tracd -s --port 8000 /path/to/myproject
     224}}}
     225
     226=== Running Trac on a Web Server
     227
     228Trac provides various options for connecting to a "real" web server:
     229 - [TracFastCgi FastCGI]
     230 - [wiki:TracModWSGI Apache with mod_wsgi]
     231 - [TracModPython Apache with mod_python]
     232 - [TracCgi CGI] //(should not be used, as the performance is far from optimal)//
     233
     234Trac also supports [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp AJP] which may be your choice if you want to connect to IIS. Other deployment scenarios are possible: [trac:TracNginxRecipe nginx], [https://uwsgi-docs.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#Traconapacheinasub-uri uwsgi], [trac:TracOnWindowsIisIsapi Isapi-wsgi] etc.
     235
     236==== Generating the Trac cgi-bin directory #cgi-bin
     237
     238Application scripts for CGI, FastCGI and mod-wsgi can be generated using the [TracAdmin trac-admin] `deploy` command:
     239[[TracAdminHelp(deploy)]]
     240
     241Grant the web server execution right on scripts in the `cgi-bin` directory.
     242
     243For example, the following yields a typical directory structure:
     244{{{#!sh
     245$ mkdir -p /var/trac
     246$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> initenv
     247$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     248$ ls /var/www
     249cgi-bin htdocs
     250$ chmod ugo+x /var/www/cgi-bin/*
     251}}}
     252
     253==== Mapping Static Resources
     254
     255Without additional configuration, Trac will handle requests for static resources such as stylesheets and images. For anything other than a TracStandalone deployment, this is not optimal as the web server can be set up to directly serve the static resources. For CGI setup, this is '''highly undesirable''' as it causes abysmal performance.
     256
     257Web servers such as [https://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] allow you to create //Aliases// to resources, giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily reflect their location on the file system. We can map requests for static resources directly to directories on the file system, to avoid Trac processing the requests.
     258
     259There are two primary URL paths for static resources: `/chrome/common` and `/chrome/site`. Plugins can add their own resources, usually accessible at the `/chrome/<plugin>` path.
     260
     261A single `/chrome` alias can used if the static resources are extracted for all plugins. This means that the `deploy` command (discussed in the previous section) must be executed after installing or updating a plugin that provides static resources, or after modifying resources in the `$env/htdocs` directory. This is probably appropriate for most installations but may not be what you want if, for example, you wish to upload plugins through the //Plugins// administration page.
     262
     263The `deploy` command creates an `htdocs` directory with:
     264 - `common/` - the static resources of Trac
     265 - `site/` - a copy of the environment's `htdocs/` directory
     266 - `shared` - the static resources shared by multiple Trac environments, with a location defined by the `[inherit]` `htdocs_dir` option
     267 - `<plugin>/` - one directory for each resource directory provided by the plugins enabled for this environment
     268
     269The example that follows will create a single `/chrome` alias. If that isn't the correct approach for your installation you simply need to create more specific aliases:
     270{{{#!apache
     271Alias /trac/chrome/common /path/to/trac/htdocs/common
     272Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/trac/htdocs/site
     273Alias /trac/chrome/shared /path/to/trac/htdocs/shared
     274Alias /trac/chrome/<plugin> /path/to/trac/htdocs/<plugin>
     275}}}
     276
     277===== Example: Apache and `ScriptAlias` #ScriptAlias-example
     278
     279Assuming the deployment has been done this way:
     280{{{#!sh
     281$ trac-admin /var/trac/<project> deploy /var/www
     282}}}
     283
     284Add the following snippet to Apache configuration, changing paths to match your deployment. The snippet must be placed ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` directive, because those directives map all requests to the Trac application:
     285{{{#!apache
     286Alias /trac/chrome /path/to/trac/htdocs
     287
     288<Directory "/path/to/www/trac/htdocs">
     289  # For Apache 2.2
     290  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     291    Order allow,deny
     292    Allow from all
     293  </IfModule>
     294  # For Apache 2.4
     295  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     296    Require all granted
     297  </IfModule>
     298</Directory>
     299}}}
     300
     301If using mod_python, add this too, otherwise the alias will be ignored:
     302{{{#!apache
     303<Location "/trac/chrome/common">
     304  SetHandler None
     305</Location>
     306}}}
     307
     308Alternatively, if you wish to serve static resources directly from your project's `htdocs` directory rather than the location to which the files are extracted with the `deploy` command, you can configure Apache to serve those resources. Again, put this ''before'' the `ScriptAlias` or `WSGIScriptAlias` for the .*cgi scripts, and adjust names and locations to match your installation:
     309{{{#!apache
     310Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
     311
     312<Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
     313  # For Apache 2.2
     314  <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
     315    Order allow,deny
     316    Allow from all
     317  </IfModule>
     318  # For Apache 2.4
     319  <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
     320    Require all granted
     321  </IfModule>
     322</Directory>
     323}}}
     324
     325Another alternative to aliasing `/trac/chrome/common` is having Trac generate direct links for those static resources (and only those), using the [TracIni#trac-htdocs_location-option trac.htdocs_location] configuration setting:
     326{{{#!ini
     327[trac]
     328htdocs_location = http://static.example.org/trac-common/
     329}}}
     330
     331Note that this makes it easy to have a dedicated domain serve those static resources, preferentially cookie-less.
     332
     333Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs/common` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
     334{{{#!sh
     335$ ln -s /path/to/trac/htdocs/common /var/www/static.example.org/trac-common
     336}}}
     337
     338==== Setting up the Plugin Cache
     339
     340Some Python plugins need to be extracted to a cache directory. By default the cache resides in the home directory of the current user. When running Trac on a Web Server as a dedicated user (which is highly recommended) who has no home directory, this might prevent the plugins from starting. To override the cache location you can set the `PYTHON_EGG_CACHE` environment variable. Refer to your server documentation for detailed instructions on how to set environment variables.
     341
     342== Configuring Authentication
     343
     344Trac uses HTTP authentication. You'll need to configure your webserver to request authentication when the `.../login` URL is hit (the virtual path of the "login" button). Trac will automatically pick the `REMOTE_USER` variable up after you provide your credentials. Therefore, all user management goes through your web server configuration. Please consult the documentation of your web server for more info.
     345
     346The process of adding, removing, and configuring user accounts for authentication depends on the specific way you run Trac.
     347
     348Please refer to one of the following sections:
     349 * TracStandalone#UsingAuthentication if you use the standalone server, `tracd`.
     350 * [wiki:TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication TracModWSGI#ConfiguringAuthentication] if you use the Apache web server, with any of its front end: `mod_wsgi`, `mod_python`, `mod_fcgi` or `mod_fastcgi`.
     351 * TracFastCgi if you're using another web server with FCGI support (Cherokee, Lighttpd, !LiteSpeed, nginx)
     352
     353[trac:TracAuthenticationIntroduction] also contains some useful information for beginners.
     354
     355== Granting admin rights to the admin user
     356Grant admin rights to user admin:
     357{{{#!sh
     358$ trac-admin /path/to/myproject permission add admin TRAC_ADMIN
     359}}}
     360
     361This user will have an //Admin// navigation item that directs to pages for administering your Trac project.
     362
     363== Configuring Trac
     364
     365Configuration options are documented on the TracIni page.
     366
     367TracRepositoryAdmin provides information on configuring version control repositories for your project.
     368
     369In addition to the optional version control backends, Trac provides several optional features that are disabled by default:
     370* [TracFineGrainedPermissions#AuthzPolicy Fine-grained permission policy]
     371* [TracPermissions#CreatingNewPrivileges Custom permissions]
     372* [TracTickets#deleter Ticket deletion]
     373* [TracTickets#cloner Ticket cloning]
     374* [TracRepositoryAdmin#CommitTicketUpdater Ticket changeset references]
     375
     376== Using Trac
     377
     378Once you have your Trac site up and running, you should be able to create tickets, view the timeline, browse your version control repository if configured, etc.
     379
     380Keep in mind that //anonymous// (not logged in) users can by default access only a few of the features, in particular they will have a read-only access to the resources. You will need to configure authentication and grant additional [TracPermissions permissions] to authenticated users to see the full set of features.
     381
     382'' Enjoy! ''
     383
     384[trac:TracTeam The Trac Team]
     385
     386----
     387See also: [trac:TracInstallPlatforms TracInstallPlatforms], TracGuide, TracUpgrade